Bibliography: p. 345-346.
|Statement||edited by Robert Noyes.|
|LC Classifications||HD9545.6 .C6|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xi, 346 p. :|
|Number of Pages||346|
|LC Control Number||77094231|
Coal takes millions of years to form. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock with a high amount of carbon and hydrocarbons. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form. Coal contains the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swampy forests. Current generation numbers show that coal produces approximately 42% of American electricity. EIA data for November indicates that coal produced % of our electricity, while wind and solar together generated less than %. While coal use has declined overall in the past few years, coal saw a % growth from the same period in naturally occurring deposits in such forms and amounts that economic extraction is currently or potentially feasible (Wood et al., ). Coal reserve is a more restrictive term describing the part of the coal resource that can be mined economically, at the present time, given existing environmental, legal, and technological constraints (Wood et al., ). The biggest coal deposit by volume is the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, which the USGS estimated to have trillion short tons of in-place coal resources, billion short tons of recoverable coal resources, and 25 billion short tons of economic coal resources (also called reserves) in .
FIGURE World distribution of coal resources and reserves. [Source: W. Fulkerson et al., Scientific American, September , p. ] The total amount of coal in the world is so large (equivalent to about , quadrillion BTU) that the possession of even a small fraction represents a major economic benefit (see Review Question ). America has the world's largest reserves of coal, at billion short tons or 27% of the total. This abundant source of energy helped fuel U.S. growth during the Industrial Revolution. It fueled steamships and steam-powered railroads. After the Civil War, coke, a derivative of coal, was used to fuel the iron blast furnaces that made steel. At least metric tons of coal are transported to Punjab Province. The coal is mainly used in brick kilns and other factories such as textile and cement. The width of the coal seams vary from 6 inches to 9 feet. On average coal mines operate with turnover of Rs million daily. Duki is the best private mining valley in Pakistan. Most of energy production is based on fossil fuels: oil, gas, and coal. These are resources are going to eventually run out. Since energy production goes up year by year, the rate at which these fuels are burned is also increasing. It is therefore necessary that we invest time and money into researching and developing new renewable energy.
L.P. Thomas, in The Coal Handbook: Towards Cleaner Production: Coal Production, Abstract: Coal resources still make up a significant proportion of the world’s energy supplies. Coal resources are estimated to be billion tonnes. These resources are geographically well distributed and current production provides fuel for 29% of the world’s primary energy consumption. cally recoverable coal resources is shown in figure 3. For CARS studies, coal beds must be correlated and modeled individually. Thus, the largest task in deriving an estimate of economically recoverable coal resources was the construc-tion of the digital geologic model to determine the original resources. the nature, location and extent of coal resources in a particular situation, such as a coal mining lease or a coal-bearing sedimentary basin, and to identify the geological factors that may affect its economic, safe and environmentally-acceptable mining and use. Depending on the context, the immediate aim of a coal exploration program may be to. Coal - Coal - World distribution of coal: Coal is a widespread resource of energy and chemicals. Although terrestrial plants necessary for the development of coal did not become abundant until Carboniferous time ( million to million years ago), large sedimentary basins containing rocks of Carboniferous age and younger are known on virtually every continent, including Antarctica (not.